FICO Credit Scores: What Do They Mean?
Since we live in an automated society, it's not surprising that your ability to repay your mortgage comes down to a single number.
The FICO score is created by credit agencies. These agencies use the payment history of all of your loans: credit cards, mortgages, car loans etcetera.
All three major credit reporting agencies (Equifax, Experian and TransUnion) use a slightly different system to arrive at a score. Fair Isaac and Cooriginally developed this score. .
Experian uses this model and calls its score FICO. Equifax's model, based on FICO, is called BEACON, while TransUnion, which also uses a slightly modified FICO, calls its score EMPIRICA. While each of the models considers a range of data available in your credit report, the differences aren't huge; all of the agencies use the following factors to calculate a score:
- Your Credit History - How many years have you had credit?
- History of Payments - Do you have a history of late payments?
- Balances on your Credit Cards - How many accounts do you hold? How much do you owe on your accounts?
- Inquiries on Your Credit - How many times have lenders pulled your credit for the purpose of giving you a loan?
These factors are assigned weights based on the formula being used. Each formula produces a single number which may vary slightly by agency. Credit scores can be as low as 300 and as high as 800. Higher is better. Most home buyers these days have a score above 620.
Credit scores make a difference in your interest rate
Did you know? FICO scores affect more than your ability to get a loan. They also affect your interest rate. Lenders give lower interest rates to individuals with higher scores.
Raising your FICO score
Unfortunately, there isn't a lot you can do to immediately improve your credit score. Despite what you hear from "credit repair" companies, the FICO score is formulated from your lifetime credit history, so it's not possible to raise it significantly in the short term. (Of course you must remove incorrect data on your credit report.)
How do I find out my FICO score?
To raise your score, you've got to get the credit reports that the agencies use to build it. Of course, you need the score as well. Fair Isaac has created a web site (www.myFICO.com) that lets you do just that. It's inexpensive, fast, and easy to get your credit score along with credit reports from all three credit reporting agencies. They also provide information and tools that can help you understand how to improve your credit score.
You can get a federally-mandated free credit report once a year from the three major agencies at AnnualCreditReport.com. While this report does not include a free credit score, the cost to "upgrade" your report to include a credit score is very reasonable.
Now that you have all the facts, you will be a more informed consumer and you'll be better positioned to get the most favorable mortgage.
Curious about your FICO score? Give us a call at (678) 539-8100.